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由日內瓦印記 Geneva Seal 十二法則入門手錶工藝的欣賞
所謂的日內瓦印記 (Geneva Seal 或 Poinçon de Genève),以今日的行銷術語來說,可以說是類似「正字標記」或是「台灣精品」這類的品質保證標記。當年,日內瓦地區的製錶業界為了保障真正在日內瓦地區所生產的鐘錶,避免其他地方或國家所製作的手錶魚目混珠,以低劣的產品刻上「日內瓦製造」的名號來銷售,於是在 1886 年由日內瓦的鐘錶同業公會訂立了「日內瓦法則」(Ecole d'Horologerie et d'Electronique et d'informatique Section Poinçon de Genève rte du Pont-Butin 43 1213 Petit-Lancy Geneva Switzerland),符合法則所製作出來的手錶經過驗證,便可以在機芯的夾板上鏤刻上「鷹與鑰匙」盾牌圖樣的日內瓦徽章標誌。目前共有十二條的「日內瓦法則」訂立至今曾歷經多次修改,以配合時代的轉變。

「日內瓦印記法則」詳細規定了機芯的每一部分高標製作的規範,雖然有些部分純粹基於裝飾性的考量,比如所有尖銳角必須切成斜面,再經打磨光;活動齒輪須經人工修飾,及以黃楊木打磨光亮等,再則這十二條法則不見得每一個製錶大師或專家都完全認同,加上它只頒給日內瓦地區的製錶廠所產製的手錶,具有強烈的地域排他性也頗受非議。然而,鐘錶專家王永昌先生曾說:「鐘錶工藝師傅必須遵循依定的法則來完成一件作品,兢兢業業、一絲不苟,憑著良心以執著的精神來製錶,才能創造出光彩奪目、精準耐用的鐘錶。現在一些錶廠只在錶殼的流行、機芯夾板上的打磨亮麗著手,消費者只看到外觀的美感和機芯表面的亮麗,卻無法徹底了解機械裡面製作工藝的優劣。」More…




雖然未獲得日內瓦印記的未見得不是好錶 (Philippe Dufour 的 Simplicity),
但符合日內瓦印記的標準卻幾乎可以代表了製錶工藝的精良


的確,鐘錶賞析的學問既深奧且蕪雜,大多數錶迷往往有「不識廬山真面目,只緣身在此山中」的感慨。日內瓦印記法則既然是一部讓大多數專家認定「最能保證每一只手錶皆採用最上乘的手藝、技術及材料製成」的嚴謹規範,因此即便在壹百多年後的今天依舊堪稱錶迷賞析腕錶工藝時的最佳指南之ㄧ,當然值得我們深入介紹探討,作為錶迷探究終極製錶工藝的第一課。

日內瓦印記的十二法則:

(1A) The workmanship of all the caliber's components, including those of additional mechanisms, must meet the requirements of the office for optional inspection of Geneva watches. 

機芯內所有零件,包括添加的機械裝置,其工藝必須達到 12 法則的嚴格要求,並接受抽樣檢驗。意即所有金屬材料所製作的零件以及附加的機裝置,其表面必須整平,邊緣必須削角拋光 (參考上圖),所有零件的內面和側面都必須打磨。

(1B) Steel parts must have polished angles and their visible surfaces smoothed down. Screw heads have to be polished, with their slots and rims chamfered. 

所有鋼製零件的邊緣必須削角、打磨、拋光使其如鏡面般光亮。所有螺絲帽的邊緣及凹口都要削角拋光,螺絲尾則須做平面或球面拋光。





(2) All movements must be provided on the train and escapement with ruby jewels having polished holes. On the bridge side, the jewels must be half frosted with polished sinks. The end stone for the center wheel on the base plate is not required.

除發條盒、發條軸心以及底板中心輪的軸孔可以不必裝配紅寶石外,其他所有機芯輪系、擒縱器、馬仔和襬輪都必須裝配紅寶石軸承 (如下圖一),其孔內必須高度拋光,和齒輪接觸的平面必須做弧形拋光,至少也要做到平面拋光,藉以減少摩擦面積。紅寶石中心孔必須留有喇叭口的蓄油槽,並高度拋光以免油質擴散流失,而紅寶石的外圍必須做凹環並拋光美化處理 (如下圖二)。擒縱輪和馬仔最好也像襬輪一樣有托石,使磨擦力減到最小,至少擒縱輪要有上下托石。









(3) The balance spring should be pinned up in a grooved plate with a stud having a rounded collar and cap. Mobile studs are allowed. 

游絲必須採用寶璣式雙層藍鋼游絲,超薄機芯使用單層的藍鋼游絲也可被接受。襬輪上的游絲頭必須用單頭有圓頸,可自由滑動式的活動金屬壓板鎖緊固定,或以可調校式的支撐螺旋栓也可接受。





(4) Split or fitted indexes are allowed with a holding system except in extra-thin calibers where the holding system is not required.

游絲調整器,也就是快慢指示針必須有固定裝置並可以微調 (如鵝頸式微調器) (如下圖一),超薄機芯則不需要有微調快慢針的裝置。若無快慢針的設計,襬輪上必須有可微調快慢的補償螺絲,而最少兩顆或四顆新式的鈹鎳合金琺碼補償襬輪(如下圖二),或者最少4顆或8顆可微調快慢,沒有補償螺絲的環狀光襬,在近代則是可被接受的。









(5) Regulating systems (balances) with variable radius of gyration are allowed provided they comply with criteria One (A) and One (B).

帶動襬輪旋轉的襬碟、調校等時節拍的結構和快慢針等機制及其零件,都必須達到法則 1A 和 1B 的要求。





(6) The wheels of the going train have to be chamfered above an below and have a polished sink. In wheels 0.15 mm thick or less, a single chamfer is allowed on the bridge side.

所有輪系的齒輪傳動環邊及其支撐樑都必須削角,和小齒瓣結合處,必須打磨修飾。厚度相當或小於 0.15 mm 的齒輪,則可以只削角打磨一面,傳動環經過打磨。如果齒輪厚度大於 0.15 mm,則齒輪的兩面都必須做削角打磨處理。





(7) In wheel assemblies, the pivot shanks and the faces of the pinion leaves have to be polished.

所有輪系的鋼質齒瓣及其橫切面、所有輪軸末端以及其桿柱都要做鏡面拋光 。也就是說所有的傳動輪系的齒輪都必須打磨削角,鋼質的齒瓣包括所有部位都必須做鏡面打磨,使其光彩奪目,而且不會因毛細現象而讓油擴散流失。當紅寶石和軸心都做鏡面光打磨時,摩擦阻力會減少,潤滑油也會因內聚力的物理效應而凝聚成球型,不致因為粗糙的表面,讓油因毛細孔現象而導致擴散流失。





(8) The escape wheel has to be light, not more than 0.16mm thick in large calibers and 0.13mm in calibers under 18mm, and its locking-faces have to be polished.

在擒縱系統的結構裡,擒縱輪必須輕巧,馬仔本身最好要有平衡裝置。機芯大於 18 mm 者,其擒縱輪的厚度最好不超過 0.16 mm,而機芯小於18 mm 者,其擒縱輪的厚度不可超過 0.13 mm。擒縱輪鎖住馬仔紅寶石的部位必須打磨拋光,推動馬仔紅寶石的齒尖必須做鏡面拋光打磨,只有如此,才能有效的減少摩擦阻力,油不致因為毛細孔物理現象而擴散流失。襬輪和馬仔紅寶石的摩擦面應該在 0.07 mm 和 0.03 mm 之間最理想,摩擦面積越小,動能的損耗越少,釋放能量的效果最佳,當然只有最上等的鋼材,才能達到效率高長的最好狀況。





(9) The angle traversed by the lever is to be limited by fixed banking walls to the exclusion of pins or studs.

在槓桿式擒縱系統的結構裡,馬仔左右襬動釋放出能量,驅動襬輪運轉同時,制止馬仔的定位機制必須由固定型夾板限制 (如下圖),不管在主機板或馬仔板都可以接受,但是不容可可以隨意移動或可變動位置的部件。其中有一種鑲有二顆紅寶石做為馬仔的定位限制結構中最為高級,而且禁止使用栓釘式可微調的偏心螺栓。





(10). Movements fitted with shock proofing are accepted.

所有的機芯都必須安裝有防震裝置 (如下圖)。約 1900 年的懷錶以及 1940 年到 1970 年間的很多機芯烙印有日內瓦印記,像百達翡麗和江詩丹頓手錶在當時並未安裝有避震裝置,所以這一條守則可能是1970 年後才加上去的規定。





(11) The ratchet wheel and the crown wheel should be finished according to registered patterns.

在上鍊系統結構的棘輪與冠輪,必須遵照註冊型號的特別規定製作。亦即鼓車、吉車和小鋼輪與大鋼輪的咬合,必須打磨拋光,使其上鍊省力順暢。為了達到堅固耐用的目的,小鋼輪須為垂直雙層式,大小鋼輪最好是狼牙狀的齒型,這一點在古董高級鐘錶中可遇見,近代錶大都僅是有倒角拋光的齒型(如下圖一、二及三)。













(12) Wire springs are not accepted. 

不可使用鋼絲彎曲成型的彈簧。機芯裡具有彈簧性能的擋仔,如發條擋仔,或鼓吉車、離合的彈簧、日曆和自動輪系、三問、報時、計時碼錶以及萬年曆等性能,其零件所使用的彈簧必須以整塊鋼板切削雕琢,打磨拋光製成具彈性與優美線條的零件。不管任何零組件在操控動作時,都必須藉助彈簧回位,彈簧的形狀哪怕是薄如紙,或長、或短,而且都必須由定位釘來固定 (如下圖),不可以用現狀或扁平彈簧加工彎曲成型,或以無螺絲固定的彈簧來代用。





Acknowledgements:

日內瓦印記法則部分之文字解釋取材自文永昌先生所著「鐘錶藝術」一書。Pictures are edited from the works of John Davis and SteveG. 特此聲明及致謝。
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Re: 由日內瓦印記 Geneva Seal 十二法則入門手錶工藝的欣賞 (分數: 1)
由 adywc 於 Tuesday, August 09 @ 14:02:55 CST
(張貼者資訊 | 寄私人訊息)
晚輩剛入門, 拜讀本篇解說, 有"劉姥姥逛大觀園"的感覺!

此篇文章值得細細品味參考. . .

不過據晚輩了解, 鐘錶藝術作者為 王永昌 先生,
而非 '文'永昌 先生; 或閉O筆誤吧, 謹此註明.



Re: 由日內瓦印記 Geneva Seal 十二法則入門手錶工藝的欣賞 (分數: 1)
由 PowerCenter 於 Sunday, August 29 @ 15:57:51 CST
(張貼者資訊 | 寄私人訊息)
很用心的拜讀全文後只對頁末這一段轉載聲明有疑問
取材自文永昌
還是
王永昌

Acknowledgements:

日內瓦印記法則部分之文字解釋取材自文永昌先生所著「鐘錶藝術」一書。Pictures are edited from the works of John Davis and SteveG. 特此聲明及致謝。



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